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Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis(OA) or ‘wear and tear’ arthritis is an inflammatory joint disease in which the protective cartilage at the ends of the bones degenerates over time. This may cause the bones in the joints to rub against each other when they move. This ultimately results in pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joint. Osteoarthritis commonly occurs in weight- bearing joints such as hips, knees (most common) and spine.

Healthy knee, degenerated knee and prosthetic knee

OA is the most common and frequently reported joint disease in India with a prevalence of around 22% to 39%. It is more common in women than in men. Factors such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and sedentary lifestyle contribute to the increasing prevalence of OA. The disability due to arising from pain and decreased joint movement has a negative effect on the quality of life.

Symptoms of Osteoarthritis

The common symptoms of arthritis include:

  1. Pain in the joint: Pain can occur after overuse or after long period of inactivity
  2. Stiffness: It is more evident in the morning after you wake or after prolonged inactivity.
  3. Joint tenderness: Applying slight pressure on the joint may elicit pain.
  4. Decreased range of motion: Owing to pain, you may not be able to move the joint through the entire range.
  5. Grating sensation: You may hear or feel a grating sound when your joint moves.
  6. Bony spurs: Extra bony protuberances can be felt around the joint in the advanced stage of disease.

Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis

If your doctor suspects that you have OA, she may recommend you take the following tests:

  • Laboratory tests: Lab tests are not useful to diagnose OA. However, lab tests can help in distinguishing OA with other forms of arthritis
    1. Joint aspiration: A sample of synovial fluid from the joints is drawn and studied. This test is done to find out if the pain is caused due to gout or joint infection.
    2. Rheumatoid factor(RF): Levels of RF protein in your blood is determined to find out if your symptoms are caused due to rheumatoid arthritis.
    3. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sed rate or ESR): This test helps to detect inflammation in the body. High ESR would indicate that the patient may have rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Imaging tests:
    1. X-ray: Decreased joint space, bone damage and presence of bony outgrowths on X ray indicate OA. Some people may all these evidences of osteoarthritis on X-ray even before they experience any symptoms
    2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI): It gives a detailed image of the joint and the surrounding structures. MRI is useful to evaluate the extent of joint damage.

Management of Osteoarthritis

There is no cure for osteoarthritis. The main aim of treatment for osteoarthritis is- decreasing pain, improving joint mobility and minimizing joint damage.

Home Measures

  1. Exercise: Stretching exercise help in increasing flexibility and joint range of motion. Strength training helps in building muscle which protect the joint from injury.
  2. Lose weight: Obesity stresses your weight bearing joints. Losing weight can help in reducing joint stresses and reduce joint damage.
  3. Arthritis diet: A diet rich in fish, nuts, fruits and vegetables, beans, whole grains, and olive oil helps in reducing inflammation and is good for your joint health.

Medical Management

  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: These are most commonly available over the counter drugs. These drugs ease inflammation and relieve pain.
  2. Narcotic pain relievers can be prescribed by the doctor if you have severe pain.
  3. Hyaluronan Injections: Hyaluronic acid occurs naturally in joint fluids. It serves as a shock absorber and a joint lubricant. This acid is less in osteoarthritic joints. Hyaluronic injections are injected in the joint and is known to reduce pain for up to 6 months.

Physical therapy

Physical therapy aims in relieving pain and increasing joint range of motion. Using modalities such as contrast baths, wax therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation helps relieve joint pain and prescribing specific exercises help in strengthening the muscles around the joint and improve joint range of motion.

Joint replacement surgery

When other treatments have failed to provide relief for patients with severe OA, surgery is prescribed. Joint replacement involves removal of the damaged joint and replacing it with an artificial joint made up of metal and plastic components.

Why choose Apollo Diagnostics?

We have the expertise of 34 + years in healthcare. Our labs are equipped with EQUAS (External Quality Assurance System) and loaded with full automated machines to ensure error free reports, with a quick turnaround time, and at an affordable price. For your convenience, we offer free home collection of samples.

For appointments, please call 4444 2424.

References

  1. https://www.nhp.gov.in/disease/musculo-skeletal-bone-joints-/osteoarthritis. Accessed on 21/10/2017
  2. The Basics of Osteoarthritis. https://www.webmd.com/osteoarthritis/guide/osteoarthritis-basics#1. Accessed on 21/10/2017
  3. https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteoarthritis. Accessed on 21/10/2017
  4. Osteoarthritis Testing. https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/conditions/osteo/start/1. Accessed on 21/10/2017
  5. Osteoarthritis treatment. http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/osteoarthritis/treatment.php. Accessed on 21/10/2017

Patient Testimonials

“Finding the best place for a diagnostic test is as important as consulting the best doctor. The Apollo name was what guided me to Apollo Diagnostics and I am indeed glad that I came here. From attending us on time to sample collection, everything flowed so smoothly. I was particularly impressed by the hygiene. It was definitely a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the good work!”

Mrs. Ferha Jabeen, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I Have heard a lot of good things about Apollo Diagnostics from our family physician as well as from relatives and friends. So then next time I needed a diagnostic centre, I visited Apollo Diagnostics and I was really glad I did. For one, I didn’t have to wait. The technician was extremely good, and the place was really clean. It was certainly a value for money experience. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Ms. T. Jaya, Nakkalagutta, Hanmakonda

“I must say Apollo Diagnostics places a great value on time and patient comfort! I am a fan of their home collection service which is not only on time and technically sound, but the hygiene and cordiality of the visiting technician is also commendable. Hats off! I’ll continue to recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Mr. B. Pochaiah, Mallikarjuna Nagar Colony, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I have always had a great experience with Apollo Diagnostics. The calls are unfailingly answered. The scheduled appointment is kept to the minute. The phlebotomist is well-trained in both technique and putting the patient at ease. Apollo Diagnostics undoubtedly delivers value for money. They will always be my top option for all the diagnostic needs of my family.”

Mr. Prasanta Kumar Jena, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“I came to know about Apollo Diagnostics from my relatives and friends. So, when I required a check up to be done, I thought about trying their service once. From sticking to the appointed time to accuracy of technique, it was really a great experience overall. Hygiene of the technician and the centre as well, was also quite admirable. I certainly felt it delivers value for money service. From now on, I’ll always visit Apollo Diagnostics for all my checkups.”

Mr. Venkateshwar Rao, Hanmakonda

“I was looking for a good diagnostic centre to get some checkups done. I was confused as there are so many of them all over the city. Some of my friends recommended Apollo Diagnostics as the best one. I’ll always remain thankful to them. The technician at Apollo Diagnostics was not only punctual but his competency was certainly praiseworthy. I never felt any discomfort as he was so confident and compassionate. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Mr. T Radhakishan Rao, Hanmakonda

“My experience with Apollo Diagnostics has been consistently good. Securing the appointment was very easy and the schedule was maintained to the dot. The behaviour of the technician was pleasant and he was well–versed with his job. The place was noticeably clean and I did not face any discomfort during the process. The reports were delivered as promised and surprisingly, the service was pretty affordable. I would recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my circle without any hesitation!”

Mr. Arif Ameer, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“Apollo Diagnostics came highly recommended by my friends. I was particularly impressed by their cordiality, time management and process competence. Another must mention is the hygiene factor that is impeccable. Given the quality delivered, this is certainly a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the great work!”

Ms. A.Madhavi, Warangal

“Our family physician strictly instructed me to get the checkup done at Apollo Diagnostics. I am glad I respected his opinion. I was attended to as soon as I went in. The technician was a true expert at his job and made it a painless experience for me. I also observed that the centre was spotless and all the staff members were particular about maintaining hygiene. Apollo Diagnostics certainly delivers value for money. I’ll always recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Ms. Vimala, Hanmakonda

“My Apollo Diagnostics experience has thus far been truly amazing. Besides unfailingly maintaining the schedule – be it sample taking or report delivery, their sense of cleanliness is also tops. The technicians are well-trained and do their job with diligence and in a friendly manner that puts patients at ease at once. Apollo Diagnostics is setting a very high standard indeed! Now that’s what I call a fine job!”

Ms. G. Jyothi, Warangal