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Cholesterol Disorders

Cholesterol is an essential fat that helps the body in producing new cells and hormones such as cortisol and estrogen. There are three basic forms of cholesterol- high density lipoproteins(HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low- density lipoproteins (VLDL). LDL and VLDL are also referred to as the ‘bad cholesterol’ as they contribute to the formation of plaque in the blood vessels of the heart and cause heart disease. HDL or the ‘good cholesterol’ transports LDL and VLDL to the liver where it is broken down.

Cholesterol disorders can be broadly classified as hyperlipidemia (increase in the cholesterol levels) or hypolipidemia (decrease in the cholesterol) respectively. Cholesterol is primarily synthesized in the liver and is also derived from dietary sources. Hyperlipidemia results in fat deposition in the blood vessels which causes narrowing of arteries. This may lead to heart attack and stroke. On contrary, low blood cholesterol levels also increase the risk of certain complications such as cancer and depression.

There are no specific signs and symptoms of cholesterol disorders. However, people with cholesterol disorders may have xanthomas which are fatty skin eruptions that commonly develop in joints, feet, hands, buttock or under the eye. People with a family history of stroke or heart attack or other cardiac disorders are at an increased risk of developing cholesterol disorders.

Risk factors

The risk factors of cholesterol disorders include:

  1. Cigarette smoking
  2. Alcohol consumption
  3. Obesity
  4. Unhealthy diet
  5. Sedentary lifestyle
  6. Age (Men above 45 and women above 55 years)
  7. High blood pressure
  8. Diabetes
  9. Family history of heart disease
  10. Pre-existing heart disease
  11. Medications such as thiazide diuretics, betablockers and corticosteroids

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of cholesterol disorders should be conducted for every 4-6 years starting at the age of 20. However, people with high risk of cholesterol disorders should undergo lipid profile test at least once annually.

Lipid profile: The test is performed by collecting blood sample of the individual. The samples are then evaluated for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Ideally, your blood sample for this test should be taken after 8-12 hours of fasting.

Total cholesterol Desirable Borderline High
200 mg/dl 200-239 mg/dl 240 mg/dl and above

LDL cholesterol

LDL cholesterol Range Interpretation
Below 70 mg/dl Optimal for people with heart disease and diabetes.
Below 100 mg/dl Optimal in case of heart disease.
100-129 mg/dl High in patients with heart disease.

Optimal in patients without heart disease.

130-159 mg/dl High in case of heart disease.

Borderline in case without heart disease

160-189 mg/dl Very high in case of heart disease.

High in the case without heart disease.

190 g/dl and above Very high

HDL cholesterol

HDL cholesterol Poor Better Best
Below 40 mg/dl (Men)

Below 50 mg/dl (Women)

50-59 mg/dl  60 mg/dl and above

Triglycerides

Triglycerides Desirable Borderline High Very high
150 mg/dl 150-199 mg/dl 200-499 mg/dl 500 mg/dl and above

Tests for complications of hyperlipidemia

  • Atherosclerosis: Narrowing of blood vessels due to the deposition of fat in the walls of the blood vessels obstructs the blood flow. This can be assessed with the help of angiogram, Doppler ultrasound.
  • Heart disease: The tests for heart diseases include blood tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, stress test, chest x-ray, nuclear stress test, coronary angiography, and CT scan.
  • Stroke: The tests for stroke include MRI/CT scan, electrocardiogram, cerebral angiogram, carotid ultrasound and blood tests.
  • High blood pressure: This can be assessed using a sphygmomanometer
  • Loss of sensation or numbness in the lower extremities: Sensory examination of the lower extremities would be helpful to assess loss of sensation or numbness.

Treatment of cholesterol disorders

The treatment for cholesterol disorders includes medications to lower the blood cholesterol levels such as statins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, bile acid reducing resins and other medications. These medications are helpful in maintaining optimal cholesterol levels in the blood that decrease the risk of side effects.

Prevention

  1. Dietary modifications: Avoid intake of high-fat diet and trans-fats in daily meal. Intake of fruits and vegetables rich in fiber, whole grain foods, mono-saturated fats help to lower the bad cholesterol levels and increases the good cholesterol levels.
  2. Exercise: A regular exercise and physical fitness help in maintaining optimum cholesterol levels in the body.
  3. Early diagnosis: People with the risk of cardiac disorders are recommended for annual health check-ups for early detection and treatment of cholesterol disorders.

Why choose Apollo Diagnostics?

 We have the expertise of 34 + years in healthcare. Our labs are equipped with EQUAS (External Quality Assurance System) and loaded with full automated machines to ensure error free reports, with a quick turnaround time, and at an affordable price. For your convenience, we offer free home collection of samples.

 For appointments, please call 4444 2424.

Reference

  1. Cholesterol. https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/cholesterol/tab/test/. Accessed on 25/10/2017
  2. High cholesterol. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-cholesterol/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350806. Accessed on 25/10/2017
  3. Cholesterol levels: Can it be low too? https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-cholesterol/expert-answers/cholesterol-level/faq-20057952. Accessed on 25/10/2017
  4. Stroke. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/stroke/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350119. Accessed on 25/10/2017
  5. Angina. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/angina/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20031194. Accessed on 25/10/2017
  6. Arterioscleriosis. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/arteriosclerosis-atherosclerosis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350575. Accessed on 25/10/2017

Patient Testimonials

“Finding the best place for a diagnostic test is as important as consulting the best doctor. The Apollo name was what guided me to Apollo Diagnostics and I am indeed glad that I came here. From attending us on time to sample collection, everything flowed so smoothly. I was particularly impressed by the hygiene. It was definitely a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the good work!”

Mrs. Ferha Jabeen, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I Have heard a lot of good things about Apollo Diagnostics from our family physician as well as from relatives and friends. So then next time I needed a diagnostic centre, I visited Apollo Diagnostics and I was really glad I did. For one, I didn’t have to wait. The technician was extremely good, and the place was really clean. It was certainly a value for money experience. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Ms. T. Jaya, Nakkalagutta, Hanmakonda

“I must say Apollo Diagnostics places a great value on time and patient comfort! I am a fan of their home collection service which is not only on time and technically sound, but the hygiene and cordiality of the visiting technician is also commendable. Hats off! I’ll continue to recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Mr. B. Pochaiah, Mallikarjuna Nagar Colony, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I have always had a great experience with Apollo Diagnostics. The calls are unfailingly answered. The scheduled appointment is kept to the minute. The phlebotomist is well-trained in both technique and putting the patient at ease. Apollo Diagnostics undoubtedly delivers value for money. They will always be my top option for all the diagnostic needs of my family.”

Mr. Prasanta Kumar Jena, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“I came to know about Apollo Diagnostics from my relatives and friends. So, when I required a check up to be done, I thought about trying their service once. From sticking to the appointed time to accuracy of technique, it was really a great experience overall. Hygiene of the technician and the centre as well, was also quite admirable. I certainly felt it delivers value for money service. From now on, I’ll always visit Apollo Diagnostics for all my checkups.”

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“I was looking for a good diagnostic centre to get some checkups done. I was confused as there are so many of them all over the city. Some of my friends recommended Apollo Diagnostics as the best one. I’ll always remain thankful to them. The technician at Apollo Diagnostics was not only punctual but his competency was certainly praiseworthy. I never felt any discomfort as he was so confident and compassionate. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Mr. T Radhakishan Rao, Hanmakonda

“My experience with Apollo Diagnostics has been consistently good. Securing the appointment was very easy and the schedule was maintained to the dot. The behaviour of the technician was pleasant and he was well–versed with his job. The place was noticeably clean and I did not face any discomfort during the process. The reports were delivered as promised and surprisingly, the service was pretty affordable. I would recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my circle without any hesitation!”

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“Apollo Diagnostics came highly recommended by my friends. I was particularly impressed by their cordiality, time management and process competence. Another must mention is the hygiene factor that is impeccable. Given the quality delivered, this is certainly a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the great work!”

Ms. A.Madhavi, Warangal

“Our family physician strictly instructed me to get the checkup done at Apollo Diagnostics. I am glad I respected his opinion. I was attended to as soon as I went in. The technician was a true expert at his job and made it a painless experience for me. I also observed that the centre was spotless and all the staff members were particular about maintaining hygiene. Apollo Diagnostics certainly delivers value for money. I’ll always recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Ms. Vimala, Hanmakonda

“My Apollo Diagnostics experience has thus far been truly amazing. Besides unfailingly maintaining the schedule – be it sample taking or report delivery, their sense of cleanliness is also tops. The technicians are well-trained and do their job with diligence and in a friendly manner that puts patients at ease at once. Apollo Diagnostics is setting a very high standard indeed! Now that’s what I call a fine job!”

Ms. G. Jyothi, Warangal