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Tuberculosis / TB

Tuberculosis(TB) is a contagious infection and one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. It is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs and may also spread to other parts of the body such as the bones, spinal cord, kidneys and fallopian tubes. It may spread from an infected person to a healthy person through tiny droplets that is released into the air through cough and sneeze. According to World health organization (WHO), more than 10 million adults and 1 million children were affected with TB in the year 2015. Tuberculosis can be fatal if it is left untreated.

Types of Tuberculosis

The two main kinds of tuberculosis infections are:

  • Latent TB: It is a type of tuberculosis in which the bacteria is present in the body but is in a dormant state. They do not cause any symptoms and are not contagious. Latent TB can become active.
  • Active TB: In this type, the tuberculous bacteria is in its active form, causes symptoms and is extremely contagious.

Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of tuberculosis include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Profuse sweating during night
  • Persistent cough
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Coughing up blood or mucus
  • Unexplained weight loss

Tuberculosis may also affect other parts of the body and the signs and symptoms may vary depending on the organs involved. Symptoms such as severe back pain may develop when tuberculosis affects the spine or blood in the urine may develop due to tuberculosis in the kidneys.

Diagnosis

The doctor would first assess lung sounds (using a stethoscope) to check for congestion or inflammation in the lungs. The following diagnostic tests are useful for the confirmation of tuberculosis.

  • Complete blood picture: This test helps in determining general health of the patient. detecting whether infection is present in the blood. Increased levels of white blood cells in blood indicates infection.
  • AFB(Acid Fast Bacilli) smear and culture is a rapid and the most common test performed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. The sample is taken on a thin glass slide and a smear is made. This is stained and studied under a microscope. AFB cultures help in identifying the presence of active Mycobacterium, or other bacteria which may produce TB-like symptoms.
  • Bacterial sputum test is performed to identify the cause of lower respiratory tract infections. Three sputum samples, are collected on three consecutive days and is sent to the laboratory for further evaluation. The results help in determining the presence and severity of infection. Complete Blood test is performed to determine the health status of the individual. Some amount of blood is drawn from the vein and sent to the laboratory. The test results determine the presence of the disease-causing bacteria based on the number, size and shape of the blood cells. Blood test also helps in ruling out the other causes of tuberculosis.
  • Tuberculin skin test is performed to check for any previous exposure to tuberculosis. This test is done by injecting a small amount of TB antigen on the top of the skin in the inner forearm. The formation of a hard bump at the site of injection may confirm the presence of tuberculosis.
  • Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) is a blood test performed to check the presence of latent tuberculosis infection and identifies the person who is at a risk of developing active tuberculosis. This test helps in differentiating between the latent and active tuberculosis infection.
  • Imaging tests such as chest x-ray, MRI, CT scan, chest photofluorography are performed to confirm the location of infection and determine the spread of infection.

Treatment

The duration of treatment for TB is long as the tuberculous bacteria takes a long time to leave the system than any other bacterial infection. The doctor may prescribe a course of antibiotics for the treatment for tuberculosis. The dosage and the duration of treatment depend on the age, overall health, severity of the condition and the possible resistance to the drug.

Why Apollo Diagnostics?

We have the expertise of 34 + years in healthcare. Our labs are equipped with EQUAS (External Quality Assurance System) and loaded with full-automated machines to ensure error free reports, with a quick turnaround time, and at an affordable price. For your convenience, we offer free home collection of samples.

For appointments, please call 4444 2424.

Reference

  1. Tuberculosis. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/. Accessed on 25-10-2017
  2. Tuberculosis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/8856.php. Accessed on 25-10-2017
  3. Tuberculosis. https://medlineplus.gov/tuberculosis.html#cat_92. Accessed on 25-10-2017
  4. TB Screening Tests. https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/tb-skin/tab/test. Accessed on 25-10-2017
  5. Treatment for Tuberculosis. https://www.webmd.com/lung/understanding-tuberculosis-treatment#1. Accessed on 25-10-2017
  6. Tuberculosis. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tuberculosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351250. Accessed on 25-10-2017
  7. Tuberculosis (TB). https://www.medicinenet.com/tuberculosis_tb_facts/article.htm. Accessed on 25-10-2017
  8. Bacterial Sputum Culture. http://www.tuberculosisjournal.com/. Accessed on 25-10-2017
  9. Interferon-gamma release assays for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/interferon-gamma-release-assays-for-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection. Accessed on 25-10-2017

Patient Testimonials

“Finding the best place for a diagnostic test is as important as consulting the best doctor. The Apollo name was what guided me to Apollo Diagnostics and I am indeed glad that I came here. From attending us on time to sample collection, everything flowed so smoothly. I was particularly impressed by the hygiene. It was definitely a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the good work!”

Mrs. Ferha Jabeen, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I Have heard a lot of good things about Apollo Diagnostics from our family physician as well as from relatives and friends. So then next time I needed a diagnostic centre, I visited Apollo Diagnostics and I was really glad I did. For one, I didn’t have to wait. The technician was extremely good, and the place was really clean. It was certainly a value for money experience. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Ms. T. Jaya, Nakkalagutta, Hanmakonda

“I must say Apollo Diagnostics places a great value on time and patient comfort! I am a fan of their home collection service which is not only on time and technically sound, but the hygiene and cordiality of the visiting technician is also commendable. Hats off! I’ll continue to recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Mr. B. Pochaiah, Mallikarjuna Nagar Colony, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I have always had a great experience with Apollo Diagnostics. The calls are unfailingly answered. The scheduled appointment is kept to the minute. The phlebotomist is well-trained in both technique and putting the patient at ease. Apollo Diagnostics undoubtedly delivers value for money. They will always be my top option for all the diagnostic needs of my family.”

Mr. Prasanta Kumar Jena, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“I came to know about Apollo Diagnostics from my relatives and friends. So, when I required a check up to be done, I thought about trying their service once. From sticking to the appointed time to accuracy of technique, it was really a great experience overall. Hygiene of the technician and the centre as well, was also quite admirable. I certainly felt it delivers value for money service. From now on, I’ll always visit Apollo Diagnostics for all my checkups.”

Mr. Venkateshwar Rao, Hanmakonda

“I was looking for a good diagnostic centre to get some checkups done. I was confused as there are so many of them all over the city. Some of my friends recommended Apollo Diagnostics as the best one. I’ll always remain thankful to them. The technician at Apollo Diagnostics was not only punctual but his competency was certainly praiseworthy. I never felt any discomfort as he was so confident and compassionate. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Mr. T Radhakishan Rao, Hanmakonda

“My experience with Apollo Diagnostics has been consistently good. Securing the appointment was very easy and the schedule was maintained to the dot. The behaviour of the technician was pleasant and he was well–versed with his job. The place was noticeably clean and I did not face any discomfort during the process. The reports were delivered as promised and surprisingly, the service was pretty affordable. I would recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my circle without any hesitation!”

Mr. Arif Ameer, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“Apollo Diagnostics came highly recommended by my friends. I was particularly impressed by their cordiality, time management and process competence. Another must mention is the hygiene factor that is impeccable. Given the quality delivered, this is certainly a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the great work!”

Ms. A.Madhavi, Warangal

“Our family physician strictly instructed me to get the checkup done at Apollo Diagnostics. I am glad I respected his opinion. I was attended to as soon as I went in. The technician was a true expert at his job and made it a painless experience for me. I also observed that the centre was spotless and all the staff members were particular about maintaining hygiene. Apollo Diagnostics certainly delivers value for money. I’ll always recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Ms. Vimala, Hanmakonda

“My Apollo Diagnostics experience has thus far been truly amazing. Besides unfailingly maintaining the schedule – be it sample taking or report delivery, their sense of cleanliness is also tops. The technicians are well-trained and do their job with diligence and in a friendly manner that puts patients at ease at once. Apollo Diagnostics is setting a very high standard indeed! Now that’s what I call a fine job!”

Ms. G. Jyothi, Warangal