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Leukemia

Leukemia is a blood cancer that is characterized by uncontrolled production of white blood cells in the body. The white blood cells or leukocytes are the first line of defense against bacterial, fungal and viral infections in the body.

White blood cells, red blood cells and the blood platelets are produced from the cells of the bone marrow. Defect in the bone marrow cells responsible for making the white blood cells causes leukemia. The white blood cells outgrow in number and this disturbs the balance of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in the blood.

Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms associated with leukemia are as follows:

  1. Weakness and tiredness that does not fade away even after rest
  2. Uncontrolled weight loss
  3. Bone pain
  4. Loss of appetite
  5. Bone tenderness
  6. Frequent infections
  7. Fever and chills
  8. Frequent bleeding and bruising
  9. Enlarged liver and spleen
  10. Swollen lymph nodes
  11. Tiny red spots on the skin (petichae)

Diagnosis

The following laboratory tests are useful to detect leukemia:

Complete blood cell (CBC) count

The test is performed to determine the red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet count in the blood. The blood cells are viewed under the microscope to monitor the changes in the morphology and shape of the blood cells.

Bone marrow aspiration test

A sample of cells from the bone marrow is collected from the pelvic bone or sternum using a bone marrow aspiration needle. The stem cells collected are then viewed under the microscope to determine the cell morphology of the tumor cells. This test is essential to confirm the presence of leukemia.

Biopsy of liver and spleen

The biopsy test is performed to determine the spread of cancer to the liver and spleen.

Factors affecting staging and prognosis of cancer

Staging of cancer helps in understanding the severity of cancer. The stage of leukemia is determined based on the following factors:

  • White blood cell and platelet count
  • Age
  • History of prior blood disorders
  • Chromosomal mutations (assessed by genetic tests)
  • Bone damage
  • Enlarged liver or spleen

On confirming the presence of blood cancer, the stem cells are viewed under the microscope to determine the size, shape and the staging of leukemia.

Management of Leukemia

Your treatment plan depends on the type and severity of the disease. Individuals who are the carriers of leukemia gene would have mild or no symptoms. The main treatments for leukemia include:

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapeutic drugs are used to kill and prevent the growth of cancer cells.

Radiation therapy

High-intensity radiations are used to kill the cancer cells either in a single part or the entire body. This therapy is usually recommended in combination with chemotherapy for better treatment.

Bone marrow transplantation

Bone marrow transplantation involves stem cell transplantation from a donor (allologous transplantation) or from the same individual (autologous transplantation). The stem cells transplanted helps in the regeneration of new blood cells in the body.

Self-management

  1. Engage in social activities and physical activity to control emotional and mental stress caused due to prolonged duration of treatment and hospital stay.
  2. Take healthy and nutritious meals to manage the symptoms of weight loss and loss of appetite caused due to leukemia and treatment procedures.
  3. It is advised to take pneumococcal and hepatitis vaccines to safeguard yourself from infections. Individuals who have undergone bone marrow transplantation are highly prone to infections.

Why choose Apollo Diagnostics?

We have the expertise of 34 + years in healthcare. Our labs are equipped with EQUAS (External Quality Assurance System) and loaded with full automated machines to ensure error free reports, with a quick turnaround time, and at an affordable price. For your convenience, we offer free home collection of samples.

For appointments, please call 4444 2424.

Reference

  1. Leukemia – Treatment Overviews. https://www.webmd.com/cancer/tc/leukemia-treatment-overview#1. Accessed on 18/10/2017
  2. Leukemia. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/leukemia/basics/symptoms/con-20024914. Accessed on 18/10/2017
  3. Leukemia. https://www.healthline.com/health/leukemia#overview1. Accessed on 19/10/2017


Patient Testimonials

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Mrs. Ferha Jabeen, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I Have heard a lot of good things about Apollo Diagnostics from our family physician as well as from relatives and friends. So then next time I needed a diagnostic centre, I visited Apollo Diagnostics and I was really glad I did. For one, I didn’t have to wait. The technician was extremely good, and the place was really clean. It was certainly a value for money experience. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Ms. T. Jaya, Nakkalagutta, Hanmakonda

“I must say Apollo Diagnostics places a great value on time and patient comfort! I am a fan of their home collection service which is not only on time and technically sound, but the hygiene and cordiality of the visiting technician is also commendable. Hats off! I’ll continue to recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Mr. B. Pochaiah, Mallikarjuna Nagar Colony, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I have always had a great experience with Apollo Diagnostics. The calls are unfailingly answered. The scheduled appointment is kept to the minute. The phlebotomist is well-trained in both technique and putting the patient at ease. Apollo Diagnostics undoubtedly delivers value for money. They will always be my top option for all the diagnostic needs of my family.”

Mr. Prasanta Kumar Jena, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“I came to know about Apollo Diagnostics from my relatives and friends. So, when I required a check up to be done, I thought about trying their service once. From sticking to the appointed time to accuracy of technique, it was really a great experience overall. Hygiene of the technician and the centre as well, was also quite admirable. I certainly felt it delivers value for money service. From now on, I’ll always visit Apollo Diagnostics for all my checkups.”

Mr. Venkateshwar Rao, Hanmakonda

“I was looking for a good diagnostic centre to get some checkups done. I was confused as there are so many of them all over the city. Some of my friends recommended Apollo Diagnostics as the best one. I’ll always remain thankful to them. The technician at Apollo Diagnostics was not only punctual but his competency was certainly praiseworthy. I never felt any discomfort as he was so confident and compassionate. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Mr. T Radhakishan Rao, Hanmakonda

“My experience with Apollo Diagnostics has been consistently good. Securing the appointment was very easy and the schedule was maintained to the dot. The behaviour of the technician was pleasant and he was well–versed with his job. The place was noticeably clean and I did not face any discomfort during the process. The reports were delivered as promised and surprisingly, the service was pretty affordable. I would recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my circle without any hesitation!”

Mr. Arif Ameer, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“Apollo Diagnostics came highly recommended by my friends. I was particularly impressed by their cordiality, time management and process competence. Another must mention is the hygiene factor that is impeccable. Given the quality delivered, this is certainly a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the great work!”

Ms. A.Madhavi, Warangal

“Our family physician strictly instructed me to get the checkup done at Apollo Diagnostics. I am glad I respected his opinion. I was attended to as soon as I went in. The technician was a true expert at his job and made it a painless experience for me. I also observed that the centre was spotless and all the staff members were particular about maintaining hygiene. Apollo Diagnostics certainly delivers value for money. I’ll always recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Ms. Vimala, Hanmakonda

“My Apollo Diagnostics experience has thus far been truly amazing. Besides unfailingly maintaining the schedule – be it sample taking or report delivery, their sense of cleanliness is also tops. The technicians are well-trained and do their job with diligence and in a friendly manner that puts patients at ease at once. Apollo Diagnostics is setting a very high standard indeed! Now that’s what I call a fine job!”

Ms. G. Jyothi, Warangal

“My mother needed a blood test, but was unable to walk due to pain in her leg. A Phlebotomist from Apollo Diagnostics came home and collected the sample. I was informed, via SMS, that the report could be collected from any of the 3 centres in Dibrugarh, downloaded online or even delivered home for a nominal fee. Although the rates were reasonable, my mother also received a senior citizens discount too! This saved my time, money & energy. My aachhe din really seemed to have arrived! Thank you Apollo Diagnostics and hats off for displaying true professionalism.”

Mr. Alokk Kar Dowerah, Dibrugarh

“Whenever I need to have a blood sample collected from home, I ask for Vasu. He is punctual, courteous and so skilled I hardly feel any pain when he draws the sample. Plus, I truly appreciate how quickly the reports are delivered. Thanks Apollo!”

Mr. Sukumar, Film director, Sriram Nagar, Hyderabad