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Leukemia is a blood cancer that is characterized by uncontrolled production of white blood cells in the body. The white blood cells or leukocytes are the first line of defense against bacterial, fungal and viral infections in the body.

White blood cells, red blood cells and the blood platelets are produced from the cells of the bone marrow. Defect in the bone marrow cells responsible for making the white blood cells causes leukemia. The white blood cells outgrow in number and this disturbs the balance of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in the blood.

Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms associated with leukemia are as follows:

  1. Weakness and tiredness that does not fade away even after rest
  2. Uncontrolled weight loss
  3. Bone pain
  4. Loss of appetite
  5. Bone tenderness
  6. Frequent infections
  7. Fever and chills
  8. Frequent bleeding and bruising
  9. Enlarged liver and spleen
  10. Swollen lymph nodes
  11. Tiny red spots on the skin (petichae)


The following laboratory tests are useful to detect leukemia:

Complete blood cell (CBC) count

The test is performed to determine the red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet count in the blood. The blood cells are viewed under the microscope to monitor the changes in the morphology and shape of the blood cells.

Bone marrow aspiration test

A sample of cells from the bone marrow is collected from the pelvic bone or sternum using a bone marrow aspiration needle. The stem cells collected are then viewed under the microscope to determine the cell morphology of the tumor cells. This test is essential to confirm the presence of leukemia.

Biopsy of liver and spleen

The biopsy test is performed to determine the spread of cancer to the liver and spleen.

Factors affecting staging and prognosis of cancer

Staging of cancer helps in understanding the severity of cancer. The stage of leukemia is determined based on the following factors:

  • White blood cell and platelet count
  • Age
  • History of prior blood disorders
  • Chromosomal mutations (assessed by genetic tests)
  • Bone damage
  • Enlarged liver or spleen

On confirming the presence of blood cancer, the stem cells are viewed under the microscope to determine the size, shape and the staging of leukemia.

Management of Leukemia

Your treatment plan depends on the type and severity of the disease. Individuals who are the carriers of leukemia gene would have mild or no symptoms. The main treatments for leukemia include:


Chemotherapeutic drugs are used to kill and prevent the growth of cancer cells.

Radiation therapy

High-intensity radiations are used to kill the cancer cells either in a single part or the entire body. This therapy is usually recommended in combination with chemotherapy for better treatment.

Bone marrow transplantation

Bone marrow transplantation involves stem cell transplantation from a donor (allologous transplantation) or from the same individual (autologous transplantation). The stem cells transplanted helps in the regeneration of new blood cells in the body.


  1. Engage in social activities and physical activity to control emotional and mental stress caused due to prolonged duration of treatment and hospital stay.
  2. Take healthy and nutritious meals to manage the symptoms of weight loss and loss of appetite caused due to leukemia and treatment procedures.
  3. It is advised to take pneumococcal and hepatitis vaccines to safeguard yourself from infections. Individuals who have undergone bone marrow transplantation are highly prone to infections.

Why choose Apollo Diagnostics?

We have the expertise of 34 + years in healthcare. Our labs are equipped with EQUAS (External Quality Assurance System) and loaded with full automated machines to ensure error free reports, with a quick turnaround time, and at an affordable price. For your convenience, we offer free home collection of samples.

For appointments, please call 4444 2424.


  1. Leukemia – Treatment Overviews. Accessed on 18/10/2017
  2. Leukemia. Accessed on 18/10/2017
  3. Leukemia. Accessed on 19/10/2017

Patient Testimonials

“Excellence of Apollo Diagnostics is already a recognized fact across India. Adding more strength to their reputation is their caring nature and supportive attitude. I’ll always prefer to take their services than selecting mediocre quality making any compromise with my health.”

Mr. Shahul Hameed, Chennai

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“The way Apollo Diagnostics kept me at ease during the sample collection process, the way they supported me to be at my convenience and confidence is really something I’ll always remember. They were also flawless in maintaining the hygiene. Hats off to them!”

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“Thanks for the seamless service. Based on my experience I can assure that, be it quality or punctuality, Apollo Diagnostics is one name to trust and depend on.”

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“Excellent sense of timing! The technician arrived right on time. He was really well-trained, in terms of his skill and manner, as well. Apollo Diagnostics is doing a great job.”

Subbalakshmi, Vizag

“Appreciate the quality of service that I’ve received from Apollo Diagnostics. Their competence, caring nature, sincerity, valuing customer’s time – all these together have shaped them as the most trusted diagnostic service provider in the country.
Keep up the good work!

Mrs. Pravati Dash, Bengaluru

“My mother needed a blood test, but was unable to walk due to pain in her leg. A Phlebotomist from Apollo Diagnostics came home and collected the sample. I was informed, via SMS, that the report could be collected from any of the 3 centres in Dibrugarh, downloaded online or even delivered home for a nominal fee. Although the rates were reasonable, my mother also received a senior citizens discount too! This saved my time, money & energy. My aachhe din really seemed to have arrived! Thank you Apollo Diagnostics and hats off for displaying true professionalism.”

Mr. Alokk Kar Dowerah, Dibrugarh

“Whenever I need to have a blood sample collected from home, I ask for Vasu. He is punctual, courteous and so skilled I hardly feel any pain when he draws the sample. Plus, I truly appreciate how quickly the reports are delivered. Thanks Apollo!”

Mr. Sukumar, Film director, Sriram Nagar, Hyderabad

“Their accurate understanding of customer’s needs is one thing that set them apart and ahead of all others. As a result, it becomes easier for them to deliver the right service, that with their matchless efficiency and care to ensure less pain and easily accomplished sample collection. Apollo Diagnostics is simply doing an amazing job!”

Soundarya Abhirami, Hyderabad

“The overall service standard of Apollo Diagnostics is admirably high. The technician was punctual and well-behaved, and has the genuine skill to collect the test sample without troubling the customer. These are probably some of the major reasons for them to be the best in India.”

Mrs. Lakshmi, Chennai

“The most crucial factor with Apollo Diagnostics is that they always train their Phlebotomists so well that the team consistently remains efficient and punctual and we receive a premium quality diagnostic service. Good job. Keep it up.”

Mr. Amit Kumar Patil, Bengaluru