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Infertility

Infertility is the inability to conceive after having regular unprotected sex for one year. Conditions such as endometriosis and polycystic ovarian disease may cause infertility in women whereas low sperm count and decreased sperm motility causes infertility in men.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of infertility vary in men and women.

Symptoms in Men

Infertility is usually noticed in men only when they try to conceive. Some symptoms that may indicate infertility are-

  • Changes in hair growth
  • Changes in sexual desire
  • Pain, lump or swelling in testicles
  • Problems in erection or ejaculation
  • Small firm testicles

Symptoms in Women

Infertility in women may be related to changes in menstrual cycle or hormonal imbalances. Symptoms suggestive of infertility in women are:

  1. Abnormal periods: Increase or decrease in bleeding, irregularities in periods or painful periods may be related to infertility.
  2. Dark hair growth in lips and chin, loss of hair
  3. Changes in sex drive
  4. Weight gain

Diagnosis of Infertility in Men

The doctor will initially collect information regarding the medical history, ongoing medications and sexual habits.  A physical examination will be done to check for lumps and deformities on the testicles. Shape and structure of penis are also examined to check for abnormalities. In order to find out the cause of infertility, your doctor may ask you to take a few tests.

  • Semen analysis: A sample of your semen would be analysed to find out the count, motility and shape of the sperms. This is the primary test for infertility in men.
  • Blood tests: This helps in estimating the level of hormones such as testosterone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin.
  • Ultrasound: Ultrasound helps in the detection of ejaculatory duct obstructions or any other structural abnormalities that may cause infertility.
  • Chlamydia test: Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection which may affect fertility. This test helps to find the presence of chlamydia infection

Diagnosis of Infertility in Women

The doctor will assess the women’s medical history, medicines, menstrual cycle, and sexual habits. Following this, a gynecological examination is done. While assessing for infertility, it is important to determine whether the woman is ovulating or not.

  • Ovulation test: Levels of luteinizing hormone is elevated 1-2 days before ovulation and this increase can be assessed by analyzing an early morning urine sample.
  • Ovarian reserve testing. This test helps to find out the quality and quantity of the eggs produced for ovulation.
  • Blood tests: Abnormal blood levels of hormones such as anti- Mullerian hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone and Estrogen can cause infertility
  • Hysterosalpingography: Hysterosalpingography is a procedure in which clear X-ray images of the uterus and fallopian tube are obtained. This test is usually done to rule out any obstruction of the uterus or the fallopian tubes which may cause infertility.
  • Hysteroscopy: Hysteroscope is an instrument which is inserted through the cervix. This helps in viewing the inside of the uterus and the fallopian tubes. This test is done to assess the structural defects in the reproductory system that may cause infertility.
  • Laparoscopy: A laparoscope is a thin, flexible tube with a camera at the end. It is inserted in the abdomen and pelvis to assess the fallopian tubes, uterus and the ovaries. It helps in diagnosing conditions such as endometriosis, scarring, blockade, and abnormalities in uterus or fallopian tubules.
  • Pelvic Ultrasound: Ultrasound is useful to assess for blockages of fallopian tubes and the uterus.
  • Genetic Testing: Genetic testing may be needed to rule out any genetic disorder that may cause infertility.

Management of Infertility

The treatment of infertility is dependent on various factors such as the cause of infertility and the age of the patient

Treatment for men:

  • Lifestyle changes: Measures such as regular exercise, improved timing and frequency of intercourse, discontinuing the drugs which may cause infertility can increase the likelihood of having a successful pregnancy.
  • Medications: Medications can help in normalizing the hormone levels and improve testicular function such as sperm and sperm quality.
  • Surgery: Surgery is useful for removing sperm blockage. Surgery can also be prescribed for repairing a varicocele.

 Treatment for women

  • Fertility drugs: These drugs help in inducing ovulation.
  • Surgery: Laparoscopic surgeries are recommended to open blocked tubes, or remove ovarian cysts, or to treat endometriosis. Hysteroscopy may be prescribed to remove polyps and fibroid tumors.
  • Intrauterine Insemination: In this procedure, male sperm is directly placed in the uterus when the female is ovulating. This procedure is usually done in combination with fertility drugs which induce ovulation.

 

In vitro fertilization(IVF): This is one of the most commonly used process and an alternate way of fertilization. In IVF, female eggs and male sperms are combined outside the body in a laboratory. Once the embryo is formed, it is placed in the female uterus. IVF is prescribed only in those cases where methods such as fertility drugs, surgery, and artificial insemination have not helped in conception.

Prevention of infertility:

Following are the preventive measures for infertility:

  1. Avoid alcohol and smoking: Alcohol increases the risk of ovulation disorders and endometriosis. Smoking increases the risk of miscarriage, early menopause and causes infertility.
  2. Try to conceive at a younger age: Fertility decreases after the age of 35 and declines with increase in age.
  3. Maintain a healthy weight: Avoid excess eating. Overweight or underweight can cause problems in ovulation. Maintain a healthy weight to conceive easily.
  4. Practice safe sex: Sexually transmitted diseases can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which leads to infertility.

Why choose Apollo Diagnostics?

We have the expertise of 34 + years in healthcare. Our labs are equipped with EQUAS (External Quality Assurance System) and loaded with full automated machines to ensure error free reports, with a quick turnaround time, and at an affordable price. For your convenience, we offer free home collection of samples.

For appointments, please call 4444 2424.

References

  1. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001191.htm. Accessed on 3-10-2017.
  2. Infertility; causes, diagnosis, risk and treatment. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/165748.php. Accessed on 3-10-2017
  3. 4 keys to preventing infertility. http://attainfertility.com/article/preventing-infertility. Accessed on 4-10-2017
  4. 5 most causes of infertility, http://health.howstuffworks.com/pregnancy-and-parenting/pregnancy/fertility/5-most-common-causes-of-infertility3.htm. Accessed on 4-10-2017
  5. Infertility symptoms in men and women. https://www.webmd.com/infertility-and-reproduction/guide/understanding-infertility-symptoms#1. Accessed on 04-10-2017

Patient Testimonials

“Finding the best place for a diagnostic test is as important as consulting the best doctor. The Apollo name was what guided me to Apollo Diagnostics and I am indeed glad that I came here. From attending us on time to sample collection, everything flowed so smoothly. I was particularly impressed by the hygiene. It was definitely a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the good work!”

Mrs. Ferha Jabeen, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I Have heard a lot of good things about Apollo Diagnostics from our family physician as well as from relatives and friends. So then next time I needed a diagnostic centre, I visited Apollo Diagnostics and I was really glad I did. For one, I didn’t have to wait. The technician was extremely good, and the place was really clean. It was certainly a value for money experience. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Ms. T. Jaya, Nakkalagutta, Hanmakonda

“I must say Apollo Diagnostics places a great value on time and patient comfort! I am a fan of their home collection service which is not only on time and technically sound, but the hygiene and cordiality of the visiting technician is also commendable. Hats off! I’ll continue to recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Mr. B. Pochaiah, Mallikarjuna Nagar Colony, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I have always had a great experience with Apollo Diagnostics. The calls are unfailingly answered. The scheduled appointment is kept to the minute. The phlebotomist is well-trained in both technique and putting the patient at ease. Apollo Diagnostics undoubtedly delivers value for money. They will always be my top option for all the diagnostic needs of my family.”

Mr. Prasanta Kumar Jena, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“I came to know about Apollo Diagnostics from my relatives and friends. So, when I required a check up to be done, I thought about trying their service once. From sticking to the appointed time to accuracy of technique, it was really a great experience overall. Hygiene of the technician and the centre as well, was also quite admirable. I certainly felt it delivers value for money service. From now on, I’ll always visit Apollo Diagnostics for all my checkups.”

Mr. Venkateshwar Rao, Hanmakonda

“I was looking for a good diagnostic centre to get some checkups done. I was confused as there are so many of them all over the city. Some of my friends recommended Apollo Diagnostics as the best one. I’ll always remain thankful to them. The technician at Apollo Diagnostics was not only punctual but his competency was certainly praiseworthy. I never felt any discomfort as he was so confident and compassionate. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Mr. T Radhakishan Rao, Hanmakonda

“My experience with Apollo Diagnostics has been consistently good. Securing the appointment was very easy and the schedule was maintained to the dot. The behaviour of the technician was pleasant and he was well–versed with his job. The place was noticeably clean and I did not face any discomfort during the process. The reports were delivered as promised and surprisingly, the service was pretty affordable. I would recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my circle without any hesitation!”

Mr. Arif Ameer, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“Apollo Diagnostics came highly recommended by my friends. I was particularly impressed by their cordiality, time management and process competence. Another must mention is the hygiene factor that is impeccable. Given the quality delivered, this is certainly a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the great work!”

Ms. A.Madhavi, Warangal

“Our family physician strictly instructed me to get the checkup done at Apollo Diagnostics. I am glad I respected his opinion. I was attended to as soon as I went in. The technician was a true expert at his job and made it a painless experience for me. I also observed that the centre was spotless and all the staff members were particular about maintaining hygiene. Apollo Diagnostics certainly delivers value for money. I’ll always recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Ms. Vimala, Hanmakonda

“My Apollo Diagnostics experience has thus far been truly amazing. Besides unfailingly maintaining the schedule – be it sample taking or report delivery, their sense of cleanliness is also tops. The technicians are well-trained and do their job with diligence and in a friendly manner that puts patients at ease at once. Apollo Diagnostics is setting a very high standard indeed! Now that’s what I call a fine job!”

Ms. G. Jyothi, Warangal