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Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases are caused due to invasion of the body tissues by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungus, virus, and parasites. Infections are one the leading causes of death world-wide. Day- by-day it is getting more difficult to manage infections as these pathogens have acquired resistance to the commonly used antibiotics. Approximately, half of all deaths all over the world caused by infectious diseases each year can be attributed to these three diseases: tuberculosis, malaria, and AIDS. These diseases cause over 300 million illnesses and more than 5 million deaths each year.


Organisms causing infection

The microorganisms or the pathogens which cause disease are classified as bacteria, virus, fungus and parasites.

Types Organisms
Bacteria Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus
Virus Dengue virus, Influenza virus, Rotavirus, Human Papilloma Virus
Fungus Ringworm, Candida Albicans
Parasites Giardia, Plasmodium falciparum, Pork tapeworm


Modes of transmission

Infection can be acquired in many ways and its mode of transmission are as follows:

Direct contact: Infection can occur when a healthy person comes in direct contact with a person having the infection

  • Person-to-person contact: Infection can be acquired by touching, kissing, or through sexual contact with an infected person. Eg: Human Papilloma virus infection
  • Droplet infection: Infection can be caused when a healthy person inhales the droplets of saliva, sputum or nasal discharge of an infected person. Eg: Staphylococcus Aureus infection
  • Mother to unborn: An infected mother may pass her infection to the unborn baby through the placenta. Eg: HIV infection

Indirect contact:Indirect transmission occurs when an infection gets transmitted from infected person to a healthy person through an intermediate or carrier. Types of indirect contact include:

  • Airborne transmission A healthy person may catch the infection when he inhales the contaminated air. Eg: Flu
  • Contaminated water and food: Consuming contaminated foods or sharing the food with a person having infection may lead to infection in an otherwise healthy person. Eg: Typhoid
  • Insect and animal bites: Insects and animals carry large number of microorganisms. Therefore, insect or animal bites can result in infection. Eg: Malaria
  • Blood transfusion: Infections can be transmitted when the blood of an infected person is transfused in to a healthy person. Eg: Hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS

Signs and symptoms

Disease causing microorganisms or pathogens trigger the immune system which produces a defensive action. Signs and symptoms of infection may vary depending upon the organism causing the infection. Some of the common symptoms of infectious diseases are as follows:

  • Fever
  • Weakness
  • Muscle Aches
  • Diarrhoea
  • Cough
  • Vomiting

Diagnosis of an infection

Laboratory tests help to detect the presence of infection, the causative organism and determine the progression of infection. The various types of lab tests for infection include:

  1. Blood test: White blood cells (WBC) fight infection. Therefore, an increased level of WBC’s is indicative of infection. The normal level of WBC is 4,500 to 11,000 cells per microliter (cells/mcL).
  2. Urinalysis: The urine dipstick is done to check for infection. Presence of nitrites or leukocyte esterase in urine may be a sign of a urinary tract infection. Detection of bacteria or yeast during the microscopic evaluation of the urine sample also suggests infection.
  3. Stool examination: A microscopic evaluation of a stool sample can help in detection of organisms causing intestinal infections.
  4. Throat swabs: Throat swab refers to a sample of tissue which is taken from the back of your throat. When the respiratory system examination and the blood tests indicate respiratory infection, throat swabs are cultured to identify the organism causing the infection. The infection which can be detected by throat swab culture include Candida albicans, Group A streptococcus and Neisseria meningitidis
  5. Lumbar puncture: Lumbar puncture can help in detecting serious infections such as meningitis, encephalitis and syphilis. In this test, a thin needle is inserted into your spinal canal and a small sample of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) is obtained. This CSF sample is sent for analysis. Indicators of infection in the CSF sample:
    1. Appearance: Cloudy, yellow or pink color of CSF is indicative of infection.
    2. Protein: Increased levels of total protein (< 45mg/dL) may indicate infection or another inflammatory condition.
    3. White blood cells: Elevated WBC’s in CSF indicate infection. Normally, CSF contains up to 5 mononuclear leukocytes (white blood cells) per microliter.
    4. Glucose: A low level of glucose in CSF may indicate infection.
    5. Pathogens: Presence of bacteria, viruses, fungi or other microorganisms indicates infection.
  6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as CT and MRI can help to rule out other conditions that may cause the patient’s symptoms.
  7. Biopsy: During biopsy, a sample of the infected tissue is collected and evaluated to detect the causative organism.


Once the specific causative organism is determined, the health care provider can prescribe the specific antibiotic, antiviral, anti-parasitic or anti fungal drugs to treat the infection.

Preventive Measures

  • Wash your hands with soap especially before eating and after using toilet.
  • Eat properly cooked meat to avoid parasitic infections.
  • Do not share personal items such as tooth brush, towels, underwear, and towels.
  • Practice safe sex measures such as using condoms and diaphragms to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Use a face mask while in crowded places to prevent air borne infections
  • Isolate yourself if you are suffering from any infectious disease.
  • Drink clean and purified water to prevent water- borne infections.
  • Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly before eating to remove germs.

Why choose Apollo Diagnostics?

We have the expertise of 34 + years in healthcare. Our labs are equipped with EQUAS (External Quality Assurance System) and loaded with full automated machines to ensure error free reports, with a quick turnaround time, and at an affordable price. For your convenience, we offer free home collection of samples.


  1. Infectious diseases. Accessed on: 25/9/2017
  2. Throat Culture. Accessed on- 28.09.17
  3. Human diseases and conditions: Accessed on 25/9/2017
  4. Urinalysis Results. Accessed on 28/09/17
  5. Common Infectious Diseases Worldwide. Accessed on 28/09/17

Patient Testimonials

“Finding the best place for a diagnostic test is as important as consulting the best doctor. The Apollo name was what guided me to Apollo Diagnostics and I am indeed glad that I came here. From attending us on time to sample collection, everything flowed so smoothly. I was particularly impressed by the hygiene. It was definitely a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the good work!”

Mrs. Ferha Jabeen, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I Have heard a lot of good things about Apollo Diagnostics from our family physician as well as from relatives and friends. So then next time I needed a diagnostic centre, I visited Apollo Diagnostics and I was really glad I did. For one, I didn’t have to wait. The technician was extremely good, and the place was really clean. It was certainly a value for money experience. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Ms. T. Jaya, Nakkalagutta, Hanmakonda

“I must say Apollo Diagnostics places a great value on time and patient comfort! I am a fan of their home collection service which is not only on time and technically sound, but the hygiene and cordiality of the visiting technician is also commendable. Hats off! I’ll continue to recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Mr. B. Pochaiah, Mallikarjuna Nagar Colony, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I have always had a great experience with Apollo Diagnostics. The calls are unfailingly answered. The scheduled appointment is kept to the minute. The phlebotomist is well-trained in both technique and putting the patient at ease. Apollo Diagnostics undoubtedly delivers value for money. They will always be my top option for all the diagnostic needs of my family.”

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“I came to know about Apollo Diagnostics from my relatives and friends. So, when I required a check up to be done, I thought about trying their service once. From sticking to the appointed time to accuracy of technique, it was really a great experience overall. Hygiene of the technician and the centre as well, was also quite admirable. I certainly felt it delivers value for money service. From now on, I’ll always visit Apollo Diagnostics for all my checkups.”

Mr. Venkateshwar Rao, Hanmakonda

“I was looking for a good diagnostic centre to get some checkups done. I was confused as there are so many of them all over the city. Some of my friends recommended Apollo Diagnostics as the best one. I’ll always remain thankful to them. The technician at Apollo Diagnostics was not only punctual but his competency was certainly praiseworthy. I never felt any discomfort as he was so confident and compassionate. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Mr. T Radhakishan Rao, Hanmakonda

“My experience with Apollo Diagnostics has been consistently good. Securing the appointment was very easy and the schedule was maintained to the dot. The behaviour of the technician was pleasant and he was well–versed with his job. The place was noticeably clean and I did not face any discomfort during the process. The reports were delivered as promised and surprisingly, the service was pretty affordable. I would recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my circle without any hesitation!”

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“Apollo Diagnostics came highly recommended by my friends. I was particularly impressed by their cordiality, time management and process competence. Another must mention is the hygiene factor that is impeccable. Given the quality delivered, this is certainly a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the great work!”

Ms. A.Madhavi, Warangal

“Our family physician strictly instructed me to get the checkup done at Apollo Diagnostics. I am glad I respected his opinion. I was attended to as soon as I went in. The technician was a true expert at his job and made it a painless experience for me. I also observed that the centre was spotless and all the staff members were particular about maintaining hygiene. Apollo Diagnostics certainly delivers value for money. I’ll always recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Ms. Vimala, Hanmakonda

“My Apollo Diagnostics experience has thus far been truly amazing. Besides unfailingly maintaining the schedule – be it sample taking or report delivery, their sense of cleanliness is also tops. The technicians are well-trained and do their job with diligence and in a friendly manner that puts patients at ease at once. Apollo Diagnostics is setting a very high standard indeed! Now that’s what I call a fine job!”

Ms. G. Jyothi, Warangal

“My mother needed a blood test, but was unable to walk due to pain in her leg. A Phlebotomist from Apollo Diagnostics came home and collected the sample. I was informed, via SMS, that the report could be collected from any of the 3 centres in Dibrugarh, downloaded online or even delivered home for a nominal fee. Although the rates were reasonable, my mother also received a senior citizens discount too! This saved my time, money & energy. My aachhe din really seemed to have arrived! Thank you Apollo Diagnostics and hats off for displaying true professionalism.”

Mr. Alokk Kar Dowerah, Dibrugarh

“Whenever I need to have a blood sample collected from home, I ask for Vasu. He is punctual, courteous and so skilled I hardly feel any pain when he draws the sample. Plus, I truly appreciate how quickly the reports are delivered. Thanks Apollo!”

Mr. Sukumar, Film director, Sriram Nagar, Hyderabad