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Diabetes

Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus (DM), is a metabolic disorder in which there is a high blood sugar level. In India, diabetes affects more than 62 million people, which is more than 7.1% of the adult population. Every year almost 1 million Indians die due to diabetes.

 

Diabetes is mainly caused when the pancreas fail to produce the required amount of insulin or if the cells of the body cannot absorb or respond to the insulin produced. There are three types of diabetes mellitus.

  • Type 1 diabetes This type of diabetes is caused when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. It is also referred as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM). This type generally occurs in childhood and is thus also known as “juvenile diabetes”.
  • Type 2 diabetes In this type of diabetes, the cells fail to respond to insulin. The most common cause is overweight and sedentary life. This form is referred as “non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. Prediabetes
  • Gestational diabetes: This form of diabetes occurs if a pregnant woman, without a previous history of diabetes, develops high blood sugar levels.

Signs and Symptoms

The warning signs and symptoms of diabetes include:

  • Increased thirst
  • Dry mouth
  • Increased hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Increased in the frequency of urination
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Headache
  • Loss of consciousness (Diabetic coma)

How to find out whether I have diabetes?

Few blood and urine tests that help to check for high glucose levels include:

  • HbA1c blood test: HbA1c or glycated hemoglobin develops when hemoglobin combines with glucose in blood. Levels of HbA1c gives an estimate of the average blood sugar over 3 months. In this test a reading between 5.7% and 6.4 % suggests that the patient has a higher chance of diabetes. A reading of 6.5 % indicates that the patient is diabetic. If the reading is more than 6.5 %, it indicates that the patient has poor control over blood sugar level.
  • A fasting plasma glucose test helps to detect diabetes or pre-diabetes. In this test, blood glucose is measured after the patient had been fasting for 8 hours and had only plain water during this phase.
  • An oral glucose tolerance test helps to measure diabetes or pre-diabetes. It measures the blood sugar after the patient fasts for 8 hours and then 2 hours after the patient drinks a glucose containing beverage.
  • A random plasma glucose test after the assessment of the symptoms helps to diagnose diabetes but not pre-diabetes. This test is not a post prandial test and can be done at any time.

A positive result of this test should be confirmed by doing a fasting plasma glucose test or the oral glucose tolerance test on another day.

How to prevent the complications related to diabetes?

Complications related to diabetes can be deadly but if diagnosed early, the complications can be prevented. There are various tests that help to prevent and complications related to diabetes. They are:

  1. Tests for eye problems (retinopathy):

A person with diabetes, who is more than 12 years of age, should undergo a retinal examination yearly. During the screening of your retina, a photograph of the retina will be taken to examine how healthy it is.

  1. Tests for peripheral nerve damage and circulation:

People with diabetes should have a thorough foot examination every year. Sensations such as heat and cold, touch and also the circulation in the feet will be examined to ensure there is no nerve damage or circulatory inefficiency caused due to diabetes.

  1. Tests for cholesterol:

People with diabetes should undergo blood test every year to examine the cholesterol levels. This will help to prevent any cardiovascular problems in future.

  1. Screening for blood pressure:

Diabetics are prone to develop high blood pressure. People with diabetes should measure the blood pressure levels in order to prevent any further complications.

  1. Screening for kidney diseases (nephropathy):

People with diabetes are more prone to develop kidney problems. Therefore, it is very essential for all the diabetes patients to undergo kidney function test. In this test, a sample of the patient’s urine will be collected and examined for protein in the urine.

 

Diabetes Management

Medical Interventions

The major goal in diabetes management is to control the blood glucose levels within the normal range.

  1. Type 1 diabetes can be treated with anti-diabetic medications, regular exercise and proper balanced diet.
  2. Type 2 diabetes can be treated with a proper diet, weight management, exercises and life style modifications like avoiding alcohol, smoking etc. Oral medications are also prescribed for treating type 2 diabetes. If oral medications are not effective then insulin injection is suggested for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Weight management and diet measures

  1. Diabetes Diet: Adherence to a strict diabetic diet plan is very essential to control diabetes. Amount of carbohydrates, fats, protein and fibre required for maintaining healthy glucose levels should be considered while preparing a diet plan. Also, the timing of the meals should coincide with insulin administration as suggested by the physician.
  2. Weight management and exercise: Weight management and exercise are the important aspects of diabetes management. Weight reduction and exercise increases body’s sensitivity to insulin which helps to control elevated blood sugar levels.

Home Remedies:

A healthy lifestyle is the pillar for diabetes management. People with diabetes should understand and implement the benefits of exercise and healthy diet to control the blood sugar levels. Along with the prescribed medications, a healthy lifestyle will help to prevent complications related to diabetes.

Why choose Apollo Diagnostics?

We have the expertise of 34 + years in healthcare. Our labs are equipped with EQUAS (External Quality Assurance System) and loaded with full automated machines to ensure error free reports, with a quick turnaround time, and at an affordable price. For your convenience, we offer free home collection of samples.

For appointments, please call 4444 2424.

Reference

  1. Diabetes Guide. https://www.webmd.boots.com/diabetes/guide/diagnosis-diabetes. Accessed on 13th October’17.
  2. Screening for diabetes. https://www.diabetes.co.uk/diabetes-complications/screening-for-diabetic-complications.html. Accessed on 13th Octorber’17.
  3. Diabetes Treatment. https://www.medicinenet.com/diabetes_treatment/article.htm. Accessed on 16th October’17.


Patient Testimonials

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“Excellent sense of timing! The technician arrived right on time. He was really well-trained, in terms of his skill and manner, as well. Apollo Diagnostics is doing a great job.”

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“Appreciate the quality of service that I’ve received from Apollo Diagnostics. Their competence, caring nature, sincerity, valuing customer’s time – all these together have shaped them as the most trusted diagnostic service provider in the country.
Keep up the good work!

Mrs. Pravati Dash, Bengaluru

“My mother needed a blood test, but was unable to walk due to pain in her leg. A Phlebotomist from Apollo Diagnostics came home and collected the sample. I was informed, via SMS, that the report could be collected from any of the 3 centres in Dibrugarh, downloaded online or even delivered home for a nominal fee. Although the rates were reasonable, my mother also received a senior citizens discount too! This saved my time, money & energy. My aachhe din really seemed to have arrived! Thank you Apollo Diagnostics and hats off for displaying true professionalism.”

Mr. Alokk Kar Dowerah, Dibrugarh

“Whenever I need to have a blood sample collected from home, I ask for Vasu. He is punctual, courteous and so skilled I hardly feel any pain when he draws the sample. Plus, I truly appreciate how quickly the reports are delivered. Thanks Apollo!”

Mr. Sukumar, Film director, Sriram Nagar, Hyderabad

“Their accurate understanding of customer’s needs is one thing that set them apart and ahead of all others. As a result, it becomes easier for them to deliver the right service, that with their matchless efficiency and care to ensure less pain and easily accomplished sample collection. Apollo Diagnostics is simply doing an amazing job!”

Soundarya Abhirami, Hyderabad

“The overall service standard of Apollo Diagnostics is admirably high. The technician was punctual and well-behaved, and has the genuine skill to collect the test sample without troubling the customer. These are probably some of the major reasons for them to be the best in India.”

Mrs. Lakshmi, Chennai

“The most crucial factor with Apollo Diagnostics is that they always train their Phlebotomists so well that the team consistently remains efficient and punctual and we receive a premium quality diagnostic service. Good job. Keep it up.”

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Service they deliver is no less than the promise they make. Be it quality, respect for customer’s time, or efficiency of their technicians…simply matchless. I confidently recommend Apollo Diagnostics to everyone.”

Nanjappa, Mysuru