Diabetes in Young
Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus (DM), is a metabolic disorder in which there is a high blood sugar level. In India, there are approximately 97,700 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is also known as juvenile diabetes. The peak age of diagnosis of diabetes among children is 12-14 years.
Type 1 diabetes or juvenile diabetes occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce insulin. Sugar from the bloods cannot be transferred to the cells due to absence of insulin, which in turn increases the blood sugar levels.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms of type1 diabetes or juvenile diabetes develop rapidly over a period of few weeks but symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be slow and go undiagnosed for months or years. The common symptoms include:
- Increased thirst
- Increased urination
- Increased hunger
- Excessive fatigue
- Blurred vision
- Yeast infection in girls
- Weight loss
How to find out whether my child has juvenile diabetes?
If your child has the above mentioned symptoms, immediately consult with a physician. The tests to diagnose juvenile diabetes include:
- HbA1c test: This test will gives an estimate about the average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher is suggestive of diabetes.
- Random blood sugar test: A blood sample will be taken at a random time regardless of when the patient had the last meal. The blood sugar level is checked and if the count shows 200 mg/dl or higher, it suggests diabetes.
- Fasting blood sugar test: A fasting blood sample is collected when the patient is fasting for 8 hours. If the blood sugar level comes from 100 to 125 mg/dl, it is suggestive of pre-diabetes and if it is higher than 125 mg/dl it suggests diabetes.
Medical and Surgical Interventions
Treatment for juvenile diabetes includes:
- Insulin injections as prescribed by the physician
- Hypoglycemic medications that reduce blood sugar levels
- Frequent blood sugar monitoring
- Diabetic diet
- Exercise and weight management to keep the blood sugar levels within the normal or target range
Treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus in children
Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children can be managed by diet modification by including all the essential nutrients in diet, exercise and weight management to maintain a healthy weight and diabetes medications like metformin as prescribed by the physician.
Surgical Treatment for diabetes: Pancreas transplantation is the surgical procedure that can be opted if other medical intervention fails to give the desired results.
Children with diabetes should strictly adhere to the following lifestyle changes and modifications in order to prevent the complications:
- Take care of your child’s feet. Check for any blisters, cuts, sores, swelling or redness. Consult the doctor if the cut or sore does not heal.
- Make your child aware about the symptoms of hypoglycaemia like sweating, shakiness, hunger, dizziness or light headedness, irregular or rapid heartbeat, fatigue, blurred vision, irritability, and headaches etc. If any of these symptoms arises, it should be informed to you immediately.
- Exercise and physical activity should be an essential part of the daily routine.
- Monitor the blood sugar levels frequently.
- Diet modifications by including nutritional diet that is given at regular intervals. Small and frequent meals should be given throughout the day.
Why choose Apollo Diagnostics?
We have the expertise of 34 + years in healthcare. Our labs are equipped with EQUAS (External Quality Assurance System) and loaded with full automated machines to ensure error free reports, with a quick turnaround time, and at an affordable price. For your convenience, we offer free home collection of samples.
For appointments, please call 4444 2424.
- Kanakatte Mylariah Prasanna Kumar. Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Apr; 19(Suppl 1): S34–S35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413385/ Accessed on 16th October’17
- Diabetes in Children and Teens: Signs and Symptoms.https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/284974.php. Accessed on 17th October’17.