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You will get a call within 12 Hrs from the time of Booking. *T&C – Free home sample collection is not available on specific tests. Pediatric home sample collection ( kids below 10 years age ) is available at specific cities only

Blood Types and Blood Group Testing

All of us bleed red – but of various types. It is common knowledge that blood can be classified into different blood groups; news scrolls and WhatsApp texts carry urgent requests for a particular type of blood and Facebook’s ‘blood donor’ feature caters to requests based on blood groups. Those of us who are a part of any social network that provides a conduit for blood to flow from person to person, know that the following blood groups (or types) exist: A, B, AB, and O. Also familiar to us, is the positive or negative sign that accompanies these basic blood types, further segregating them into eight groups. On what basis, then, are these divisions organised?


ABO Blood Types

The ABO grouping system is based on the type of antigens that live on the surface of the red blood cells (RBCs). If the word ‘antigen’ rings a rusty bell, we may recollect that these are protein molecules that stimulate an immune response from the white blood cells (WBCs) in the body. These need not necessarily be foreign bodies: our systemgenerates ‘autoantigens’ on its own as well. The type of autoantigens that our RBCs carry determines our blood group in the following manner:

  • Blood group A has type A antigens (and type B antibodies)
  • Blood group B has type B antigens (and type A antibodies)
  • Blood group AB has type A as well as type B antigens (and no antibodies)
  • Blood group O has no antigens at all (and both types of antibodies)

(Antibodies are also protein molecules launched by the body to counter the effect of antigens.)

Rh Blood Types

A further classification is possible based on the Rh (Rhesus) factor. Named after the Rhesus monkey that was mistakenly thought to have the same antigen, this protein – which is also an antigen – is found on the cell membrane of RBCs. The determination of the various types within the Rh factor itself is a complex science, but as far as blood groups are concerned, the classification is based, quite simply, on their presence or absence. Blood that lacks Rh antigens is Rh-negative, and the other kind is Rh-positive. Accordingly, a plus or a minus sign is attached to the ABO classification, giving rise to these types: A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, and O-.

What is the significance of blood typing?

The problem and the answer both lie in the antigens. Since these substances trigger immune responses from the body, it is of utmost importance to ensure compatibility before blood transfusions and donations are made. If, for instance, a person of blood group B receives blood of type A, the recipient’s body will label the A-type antigens as foreign bodies, and resist the transfusion. It is for this reason that group AB can receive blood from any type (since it contains and recognises both types of antigens) but group O can only take from type O. The same rule applies for the highly immunogenic Rh-factor as well. Rh-negative mothers who first had an Rh-positive baby might develop antibodies that may harm an Rh-positive baby during the second pregnancy, leading to severe anaemia. It is not surprising, therefore, that many documents – ranging from university applications to employee ID-cards ask for the blood group to be specified.

What is the testing procedure?

The same principle mentioned above is applied in the laboratory.
In the first step, known as forward typing, antibodies that attack type A and type B blood are introduced into the blood sample, and the reaction is observed. If the target blood cells group together, it means that the blood sample has reacted with the antibodies. For instance, anti-A antibodies induce agglutination (grouping or clumping) in type A blood.
The second step is called reverse typing, and is performed on the serum left behind after RBCs and WBCs are removed. Blood of a predetermined type (either A or B) is added and its behaviour in the serum is observed – and this should confirm the result of forward typing.
The Rh-factor test also follows a similar pattern. Antibodies to Rh are mixed with the blood sample, and if there is a clumping reaction, the blood is Rh-positive.

Preparation and Accessibility

No prior preparation is required for a blood group test, other than the extraction of a blood sample. Any diagnostic centre will have a laboratory equipped to perform the test on this sample, but it is always safer to consult an established and reliable organization. Apollo Diagnostics gives the assurance of accurate testing and quick, authentic results. Since a lot depends on this basic test, the earlier it is done, the better. Find your nearest Apollo Diagnostics centre here (will add hyperlink later).

Book Your Test

* T & C

You will get a call within 12 Hrs from the time of Booking. *T&C – Free home sample collection is not available on specific tests. Pediatric home sample collection ( kids below 10 years age ) is available at specific cities only

Patient Testimonials

“Finding the best place for a diagnostic test is as important as consulting the best doctor. The Apollo name was what guided me to Apollo Diagnostics and I am indeed glad that I came here. From attending us on time to sample collection, everything flowed so smoothly. I was particularly impressed by the hygiene. It was definitely a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the good work!”

Mrs. Ferha Jabeen, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I Have heard a lot of good things about Apollo Diagnostics from our family physician as well as from relatives and friends. So then next time I needed a diagnostic centre, I visited Apollo Diagnostics and I was really glad I did. For one, I didn’t have to wait. The technician was extremely good, and the place was really clean. It was certainly a value for money experience. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Ms. T. Jaya, Nakkalagutta, Hanmakonda

“I must say Apollo Diagnostics places a great value on time and patient comfort! I am a fan of their home collection service which is not only on time and technically sound, but the hygiene and cordiality of the visiting technician is also commendable. Hats off! I’ll continue to recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Mr. B. Pochaiah, Mallikarjuna Nagar Colony, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad

“I have always had a great experience with Apollo Diagnostics. The calls are unfailingly answered. The scheduled appointment is kept to the minute. The phlebotomist is well-trained in both technique and putting the patient at ease. Apollo Diagnostics undoubtedly delivers value for money. They will always be my top option for all the diagnostic needs of my family.”

Mr. Prasanta Kumar Jena, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“I came to know about Apollo Diagnostics from my relatives and friends. So, when I required a check up to be done, I thought about trying their service once. From sticking to the appointed time to accuracy of technique, it was really a great experience overall. Hygiene of the technician and the centre as well, was also quite admirable. I certainly felt it delivers value for money service. From now on, I’ll always visit Apollo Diagnostics for all my checkups.”

Mr. Venkateshwar Rao, Hanmakonda

“I was looking for a good diagnostic centre to get some checkups done. I was confused as there are so many of them all over the city. Some of my friends recommended Apollo Diagnostics as the best one. I’ll always remain thankful to them. The technician at Apollo Diagnostics was not only punctual but his competency was certainly praiseworthy. I never felt any discomfort as he was so confident and compassionate. Great job Apollo Diagnostics!”

Mr. T Radhakishan Rao, Hanmakonda

“My experience with Apollo Diagnostics has been consistently good. Securing the appointment was very easy and the schedule was maintained to the dot. The behaviour of the technician was pleasant and he was well–versed with his job. The place was noticeably clean and I did not face any discomfort during the process. The reports were delivered as promised and surprisingly, the service was pretty affordable. I would recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my circle without any hesitation!”

Mr. Arif Ameer, JP Nagar, Bengaluru

“Apollo Diagnostics came highly recommended by my friends. I was particularly impressed by their cordiality, time management and process competence. Another must mention is the hygiene factor that is impeccable. Given the quality delivered, this is certainly a value for money experience. Thanks a lot Apollo Diagnostics…keep up the great work!”

Ms. A.Madhavi, Warangal

“Our family physician strictly instructed me to get the checkup done at Apollo Diagnostics. I am glad I respected his opinion. I was attended to as soon as I went in. The technician was a true expert at his job and made it a painless experience for me. I also observed that the centre was spotless and all the staff members were particular about maintaining hygiene. Apollo Diagnostics certainly delivers value for money. I’ll always recommend Apollo Diagnostics to my family and friends.”

Ms. Vimala, Hanmakonda

“My Apollo Diagnostics experience has thus far been truly amazing. Besides unfailingly maintaining the schedule – be it sample taking or report delivery, their sense of cleanliness is also tops. The technicians are well-trained and do their job with diligence and in a friendly manner that puts patients at ease at once. Apollo Diagnostics is setting a very high standard indeed! Now that’s what I call a fine job!”

Ms. G. Jyothi, Warangal

“My mother needed a blood test, but was unable to walk due to pain in her leg. A Phlebotomist from Apollo Diagnostics came home and collected the sample. I was informed, via SMS, that the report could be collected from any of the 3 centres in Dibrugarh, downloaded online or even delivered home for a nominal fee. Although the rates were reasonable, my mother also received a senior citizens discount too! This saved my time, money & energy. My aachhe din really seemed to have arrived! Thank you Apollo Diagnostics and hats off for displaying true professionalism.”

Mr. Alokk Kar Dowerah, Dibrugarh

“Whenever I need to have a blood sample collected from home, I ask for Vasu. He is punctual, courteous and so skilled I hardly feel any pain when he draws the sample. Plus, I truly appreciate how quickly the reports are delivered. Thanks Apollo!”

Mr. Sukumar, Film director, Sriram Nagar, Hyderabad